The project is structured in four Work Packages.

Additives fundamentals in relation to fuel injection processes

Objectives: To develop an experimental database for the effects of three representative additives (detergent, soot reducer and ignition improver) and three different fuels (‘surrogate’, ‘summer’ and low-quality Diesels) on:
  • fuel properties
  • nozzle flow for new and aged injectors exhibiting a degree of internal deposit build-up
  • near-nozzle atomisation
  • spray mixing

Deliverable 1.1: Measurements for fluid properties of fuels with and without additives
Deliverable 1.5: Supercritical atomisation visualisation for pilot injection events

SAFT-EoS, DNS and LES for nozzle flow and atomisation

Objectives: To develop simulation models for the range of fuels and additives under investigation for the following:
  • thermodynamically consistent EoS for pressures up to 4,500bar and fuel’s critical temperature
  • constituent laws for surfactant-surface-tension relation and DNS of cavitation-bubble dynamics
  • DNS on fuel atomisation under supercritical conditions
  • LES resolving simultaneously the in-nozzle flow and spray dispersion

Soot measurement techniques and engine emission measurements

Objectives: To perform experiments quantifying the effects of selected additives on soot formation processes in the following environments:
  • ‘soot reducers’ and ‘ignition improvers’ on flame burners utilising pre-vaporised Diesel
  • ‘detergents’ for new and coked nozzles for three different fuels injected in CVC operating under SCF conditions
  • full combination of fuels/additives in optical engines
  • full combinations of additives, fuels, injectors operating under supercritical conditions in a production engine and on-road vehicle emissions

Development of CFD tools applicable to engineering scales

Objectives: To apply URANS and LES models aiming to assist the FIE, Diesel engine, fuels and fuel additive manufacturers to assess the influence of the tested fuels/nozzle/engines on soot reduction. Simulations utilising the range or real-world fuels and realistic driving cycle conditions will result to an environmental assessment of the work.